500 Most Common Things in Medicine

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    500 Most Common Things in Medicine

    1. Most common aortic branch involved in Takayasu arteritis : Left subclavian

    2. Most common cause of respiratory distress in newborn : Transient tachypnea of the newborn

    3. Most common location to see Asbestosis sequelae : Posterior lower lobes.

    4. Most common karyotype / chromosomal abnormality in USA : Down’s syndrome

    5. Most common osseous lymphoma, primary and secondary : Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    6. Most common primary malignant orbital tumor in childhood : Rhabdomyosarcoma

    7. Most common type of fluid collection in scrotum : Hydrocele

    8. Most common type of liposarcoma to affect children : Myxoid liposarcoma

    9. Most common abdominal emergency of early childhood : Intussusception.

    10. Most common acetabular fracture : Posterior acetabulum.

    11. Most common affected bowel segment in TB : Ileocecal area.

    12. Most common affected joint in gout : First MTP.

    13. Most common AIDS-related neoplasm : Kaposi Sarcoma

    14. Most common allergic aspergillosis syndrome : Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.

    15. Most common anatomic variant of pancreas : Pancreas divisum

    16. Most common anomalous course of RCA : Interarterial

    17. Most common appearance of Legionella at the peak of the disease : Bilateral airspace consolidation.

    18. Most common associates. w/ Fx of great toe distal phalanx with physeal involvement :Osteomyelitis.

    19. Most common associated anomaly with coarctation : Bicuspid valve.

    20. Most common association of PAPVR : Sinus venosus type ASD.

    21. Most common association with small left colon syndrome : Maternal DM

    22. Most common bacterial cause of mesenteric adenitis : Yersinia enterocolitica.

    23. Most common benign cardiac rhythm abnormality : PAC

    24. Most common benign cartilage-containing tumor : Osteochondroma

    25. Most common benign growth of the skeleton : Osteochondroma

    26. Most common benign hepatic lesion : Hemangioma

    27. Most common benign hepatic tumor during first 6 mo. of life : Infantile Hemangioendothelioma

    28. Most common benign intraconal tumor of the orbit in adults : Cavernous hemangiomas.

    29. Most common benign masses caused by asbestos exposure : Atelectatic Asbestos Pseudotumor

    30. Most common benign mesenchymal tumor of kidney : AML

    31. Most common benign mucosal tumor of the esophagus : Papilloma

    32. Most common benign nasopharyngeal tumor : Juvenile angiofibroma.

    33. Most common benign orbital tumor in childhood : Dermoid Cyst of Orbit

    34. Most common benign ovarian neoplasm in young and middle-aged women (<45 years) :Mature teratoma

    35. Most common benign radiation-induced tumor of the musculoskeletal system : Osteochondroma

    36. Most common benign rib lesion in an adult : Fibrous dysplasia.

    37. Most common benign soft-tissue tumor of the foot : Plantar fibromatosis

    38. Most common benign soft-tissue tumor of vascular origin : Hemangioma

    39. Most common benign solid tumor in women of childbearing age : Fibroadenoma

    40. Most common benign testicular mass : Simple cyst

    41. Most common benign tumor of spleen : Hemangioma

    42. Most common benign tumor of the larynx : Squamous papilloma

    43. Most common benign tumor of the lung : Hamartoma

    44. Most common benign tumor of the small bowel : GIST

    45. Most common benign vascular gastric tumor : Glomus tumor of stomach.

    46. Most common bilateral testicular tumor : Lymphoma

    47. Most common biliary complication s/p lap. cholecystectomy : Bile duct leak from cystic duct stump.

    48. Most common biliary complication s/p liver transplantation : Obstruction/stenosis at anastomosis.

    49. Most common bladder neoplasm in children younger than 10 years : Rhabdomyosarcoma

    50. Most common bone to develop an osteochondroma : Femur (tibia second most common)

    51. Most common brain anomaly on prenatal sonograms : Isolated Mild Ventriculomegaly

    52. Most common breast tumor under age 25 years : Fibroadenoma

    53. Most common cardiac manifestation of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus : Pericarditis

    54. Most common cardiac tumor in children : Rhabdomyoma.

    55. Most common cardiac valvular tumor : Papillary fibroelastoma

    56. Most common carpal dislocation : Transscaphoid perilunate dislocation.

    57. Most common causative organism of acute pyogenic meningitis in adults : Strep. pneumoniae

    58. Most common causative organism of neonatal pyogenic meningitis : E. coli

    59. Most common cause for failure of dialysis graft : Fibrointimal hyperplasia : venous outflow stenosis.

    60. Most common cause for late failure in lung transplant patient : Bronchiolitis obliterans

    61. Most common cause for pulmonary edema : Left-sided heart disease

    62. Most common cause non iatrogenic cause of small bowel obstruction : Hernia

    63. Most common cause of a large choroid plexus cyst : Trisomy 18.

    64. Most common cause of a large pleural fluid collection in the newborn period : Chylothorax

    65. Most common cause of acute renal failure in children requiring dialysis : HUS

    66. Most common cause of acute testicular pain in postpubertal male : Acute epididymitis

    67. Most common cause of acute testicular pain in prepubertal male : Torsion

    68. Most common cause of AIDS cholangiopathy : Cryptosporidium

    69. Most common cause of an echogenic renal mass in a 3-month-old : Mesoblastic nephroma.

    70. Most common cause of an intraorbital mass lesion in adult : Pseudotumor of Orbit

    71. Most common cause of AS in Western world : Degenerative disease

    72. Most common cause of bilateral breast edema : CHF.

    73. Most common cause of bilateral echogenic renal cortex : Chronic glomerulonephritis.

    74. Most common cause of biliary obstruction : Choledocholithiasis

    75. Most common cause of bleeding between menstrual cycles : Endometrial hyperplasia.

    76. Most common cause of bronchopneumonia : Staphylococcal

    77. Most common cause of cancer deaths in males and females : Bronchogenic Carcinoma

    78. Most common cause of cause of infectious esophagitis : Candida Esophagitis

    79. Most common cause of cavitary (necrotic) pneumonia in a child : Strep pneumo.

    80. Most common cause of Charcot joints : Diabetes mellitus

    81. Most common cause of CHF in a child : ALCAPA / aberrant left coronary artery

    82. Most common cause of CHF in a neonate : Hypoplastic Left Heart.

    83. Most common cause of chronic hydronephrosis in renal transplant : UV anastomosis stricture.

    84. Most common cause of colonic obstruction in adults : Malignancy

    85. Most common cause of colonic obstruction in the infant : Meconium plug syndrome in CF patients

    86. Most common cause of colovesical fistula : Diverticulitis

    87. Most common cause of congenital CNS infection : CMV.

    88. Most common cause of congenital duodenal obstruction : Duodenal atresia.

    89. Most common cause of congenital sensorineural hearing loss : Giant vestibular aqueduct syndrome

    90. Most common cause of cord ischemia : Thromboembolic disease

    91. Most common cause of coronary artery aneurysm in USA : Atherosclerosis

    92. Most common cause of coronary artery aneurysm Worldwide : Kawasaki

    93. Most common cause of cyanosis in a child : Tetralogy of Fallot

    94. Most common cause of cyanosis in newborn Transposition of great vessels

    95. Most common cause of death in a severe pelvic fracture : Hemorrhage.

    96. Most common cause of death in Ataxia –Telangiectasia : Respiratory failure.

    97. Most common cause of death in Jeune syndrome : Respiratory failure

    98. Most common cause of drop mets : Medulloblastoma

    99. Most common cause of dwarfism : Achondroplasia

    100. Most common cause of echogenic renal pyramids in children : Furosemide

    101. Most common cause of ejaculatory duct obstruction : Mullerian duct cyst ?

    102. Most common cause of endometriosis in girls <16 years of age : Obstructive müllerian duct anomalies

    103. Most common cause of end-stage renal disease : Diabetic Nephropathy

    104. Most common cause of epididymitis in males aged 15 to 35 years : Sexually transmitted diseases

    105. Most common cause of esophageal rupture : Iatrogenic

    106. Most common cause of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in patients <30 years of age : CF

    107. Most common cause of facial hemi palsy : Bell palsy

    108. Most common cause of false-positive V/Q scan for acute PE : Previous pulmonary embolism

    109. Most common cause of fungal infection in AIDS patients : Cryptococcosis

    110. Most common cause of gastrocolic fistula : Gastric ulcer.

    111. Most common cause of heart failure in patients with COPD : Atherosclerotic heart disease

    112. Most common cause of hemifacial spasticity is vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia.

    113. Most common cause of hepatic calcifications : Infection

    114. Most common cause of hydronephrosis in the newborn male : Ureteropelvic junction

    115. Most common cause of hyperreflexive bladder : Spinal cord trauma

    116. Most common cause of increased nuchal thickness : Downs syndrome

    117. Most common cause of interstitial and airspace edema : CHF

    118. Most common cause of intradiaphragmatic cyst :Extralobar sequestration

    119. Most common cause of intraventricular hemorrhage :Disruption of the subependymal veins

    120. Most common cause of intussusception in children >6 years : Lymphoma

    121. Most common cause of large spherical pancreatic calcifications in children : Hereditary pancreatitis

    122. Most common cause of left atrial dilatation : Mitral regurgitation.

    123. Most common cause of leukocoria : Retinoblastoma.

    124. Most common cause of liver metastasis : Colon.

    125. Most common cause of lower extremity venous valve dysfunction : DVT.

    126. Most common cause of lower GI bleeding : Diverticulosis.

    127. Most common cause of malignancy of men in the world — Bronchogenic Carcinoma

    128. Most common cause of maternal peripartum death : Amniotic fluid embolism

    129. Most common cause of membranous croup : Staph. Aureus.

    130. Most common cause of microcolon: Meconium ileus.

    131. Most common cause of mortality in ulcerative colitis : Toxic megacolon.

    132. Most common cause of necrolytic migrating erythema : Glucagonoma

    133. Most common cause of neonatal nasal obstruction : Choanal atresia.

    134. Most common cause of Neonatal Pneumonia : Group B streptococcus.

    135. Most common cause of neonatal respiratory distress in full term/postmature infants – Meconium aspiration

    136. Most common cause of nephrocalcinosis in adults : Primary hyperparathyroidism

    137. Most common cause of non-immune hydrops in USA : Cardiac anomaly

    138. Most common cause of optic nerve enlargement : Optic nerve glioma

    139. Most common cause of orbital calcifications : Retinoblastoma

    140. Most common cause of orbital infection : Paranasal sinusitis

    141. Most common cause of osteoblastic bone metastases in an adult female : Breast cancer

    142. Most common cause of osteoblastic bone metastases in an adult male : Prostate cancer

    143. Most common cause of osteolytic bone metastases in a child : Neuroblastoma

    144. Most common cause of osteolytic bone metastases in an adult female : Breast cancer

    145. Most common cause of osteolytic bone metastases in an adult male : Lung cancer

    146. Most common cause of Osteomyelitis of spine : Penetrating direct trauma

    147. Most common cause of pancreatic lipomatosis in children : CF

    148. Most common cause of pleural eosinophilia : Air in the pleural space

    149. Most common cause of pneumoperitoneum : Ruptured duodenal ulcer.

    150. Most common cause of postpartum fever : Endometritis.

    151. Most common cause of pseudomyxoma peritonei : Appendiceal mucinous adenocarcinoma

    152. Most common cause of pseudoureterocele : Bladder tumor

    153. Most common cause of pulmonary hypoplasia : Diaphragmatic hernia

    154. Most common cause of pulmonary tumor embolus : Gastric carcinoma

    155. Most common cause of recurrent hip disloc. s/p hip arthroplasty : Acetabular component malposition

    156. Most common cause of reflux in child w/ non-duplicated collecting system: Short intramural ureter.

    157. Most common cause of renal vein thrombosis in adults : Nephrotic syndrome

    158. Most common cause of restrictive cardiomyopathy : Amyloid

    159. Most common cause of round pneumonia in children : Streptococcus.

    160. Most common cause of round pneumonia in children : Streptococcus

    161. Most common cause of small bowel obstruction : Adhesions

    162. Most common cause of squamous cell ca. in the renal pelvis : Chronic Infected stag horn calculus

    163. Most common cause of stridor in neonate and young infant : Laryngomalacia

    164. Most common cause of sudden cardiac death among young people Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM)

    165. Most common cause of SVC syndrome : Bronchogenic carcinoma

    166. Most common cause of testicular swelling : Hydrocele

    167. Most common cause of the pulmonary-renal syndrome : Microscopic polyangiitis.

    168. Most common cause of the stripe sign on V/Q scan : COPD

    169. Most common cause of thoracic outlet syndrome : Scalenus anticus.

    170. Most common cause of toxic megacolon : Pseudomembranous colitis.

    171. Most common cause of tree in bud appearance on CT : Bronchiolitis

    172. Most common cause of tricuspid stenosis : Rheumatic heart disease

    173. Most common cause of unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis : Malignant invasion

    174. Most common cause of unilateral nonperfused lung on V/Q scan : Bronchogenic carcinoma

    175. Most common cause of unilateral pulmonary edema : Prolonged unilateral dependent positioning

    176. Most common cause of urinary obstruction in boys : posterior urethral valves

    177. Most common cause of valvular heart disease in the United States : Degenerative

    178. Most common cause of vascular ring : Double arch.

    179. Most common cause of vertebra plana in children : EG

    180. Most common cause requiring bronchial artery embolization : CF

    181. Most common cause worldwide for cholangiocarcinoma : Clonorchis sinensis infestation

    182. Most common cerebellar neoplasm in children : Medulloblastoma

    183. Most common cerebral mass lesion in AIDS : Toxoplasmosis

    184. Most common chest radiograph finding seen in pts with an acute PE : Atelectasis

    185. Most common chest x-ray abnormality in the ICU : Atelectasis

    186. Most common child abuse facture : Diaphyseal fracture,

    187. Most common collagen disorder for a pleural effusion : SLE

    188. Most common colonic polyp : Hyperplastic polyp

    189. Most common colonic site for lymphoma : Cecum

    190. Most common complication of ERCP : Pancreatitis

    191. Most common complication of popliteal artery aneurysm : Distal ischemia (thrombosis/embolism)

    192. Most common complication with IVC filters : DVT.

    193. Most common component of mixed germ cell tumors : Embryonal Cell Carcinoma

    194. Most common congenital abnormality of GI tract : Meckel’s diverticulum

    195. Most common congenital anomaly of CNS in live births : Myelomeningocele

    196. Most common congenital defect of CNS : Anencephaly.

    197. Most common congenital head and neck cyst in a child : Thornwaldt cyst

    198. Most common congenital heart disease : Bicuspid aortic valve.

    199. Most common congenital intracranial tumor : Epidermoid or inclusion cyst

    200. Most common congenital lesion of bile ducts : Choledochal Cyst

    201. Most common congenital skeletal dysplasia : Achondroplasia.

    202. Most common congenital solid tumor in the newborn : Sacrococcygeal Teratoma (1:40K live births)

    203. Most common cranial nerve affected by a pituitary macroadenoma : CN VI.

    204. Most common cranial nerve to be affected with schwannoma : VIII

    205. Most common craniofacial malformation : Facial Clefting

    206. Most common crystalline arthropathy : CPPD

    207. Most common CT finding in bowel ischemia : Bowel wall thickening.

    208. Most common cyanotic congenital heart malformation beyond neonatal period : TOF

    209. Most common cyst of the jaw : Radicular cyst = Periapical cyst

    210. Most common cystic lesion of prostate : Cystic degeneration of BPH

    211. Most common cystic tumor of pancreas : Mucinous cystic neoplasm

    212. Most common diffuse breast disorder : Fibrocystic disease of breast.

    213. Most common diffuse gray matter degenerative disease : Alzheimer’s

    214. Most common dislocated auditory ossicle longitudinal temporal bone fracture : Incus

    215. Most common dislocation in adults : Glenohumeral.

    216. Most common dislocation in children : Elbow.

    217. Most common epididymal neoplasm : Adenomatoid tumor

    218. Most common estrogenic ovarian tumor : Granulosa Cell Tumor

    219. Most common etiology for chronic temporal lobe epilepsy : Ganglioglioma

    220. Most common etiology for multiple small gastric polyps : Hyperplastic polyps.

    221. Most common etiology for osteomyelitis : Staphylococcus aureus.

    222. Most common etiology of bilaterally enlarged, hyperechoic kidneys in newborn infant : ARPKD.

    223. Most common etiology of mesenteric adenitis : Viral

    224. Most common etiology of pneumomediastinum : Alveolar rupture.

    225. Most common etiology of rickets : Vitamin D deficiency.

    226. Most common extra-adrenal site of pheochromocytoma : Organ of Zuckerkandl.

    227. Most common extra axial neoplasm of CNS : Meningioma

    228. Most common extragonadal site of primary germ cell tumors : Anterior mediastinum.

    229. Most common extrapulmonary site of tuberculosis : Urinary tract

    230. Most common fetal cardiac anomaly seen on 4 chamber view US : AV canal defect (aka ECD)

    231. Most common fibromatosis in childhood : Infantile Myofibromatosis

    232. Most common finding of a tubal pregnancy seen on US images Adnexal mass separate from ovary

    233. Most common finding of contralateral kidney in MCKD : Reflux

    234. Most common fluid collection seen in transplant patients : Lymphoceles.

    235. Most common form of aortic stenosis : Valvular

    236. Most common form of carpal instability : DISI

    237. Most common form of emphysema in alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency : Panlobular emphysema

    238. Most common form of emphysema in nonsmokers : Panlobular emphysema

    239. Most common form of emphysema in smokers : Centrilobular emphysema

    240. Most common form of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy : Asymmetric involvement of the interventricular septum

    241. Most common form of skeletal dysplasia : Acquired skeletal dysplasia.

    242. Most common form of systemic vasculitis in adults : Giant cell (temporal) arteritis

    243. Most common fracture of forearm : Colles

    244. Most common functional tumors of the ovary : Sex cord–stromal tumors

    245. Most common fungal infection in AIDS : Cryptococcus.

    246. Most common genitourinary organ affected by neurofibromas : Urinary bladder

    247. Most common germ cell tumor associated with excessive hCG production :Choriocarcinoma.

    248. Most common germ cell tumor associated with excessive hCG production after choriocarcinoma : Dysgerminoma.

    249. Most common GI neoplasm : Adenoma

    250. Most common GI tract location for primary extranodal lymphoma : Stomach, usually NHL type.

    251. Most common glial tumor in adults : Ependymoma

    252. Most common glial tumor in NF 1 : JPA.

    253. Most common glial tumor with microcalcifications : Oligodendroglioma

    254. Most common gynecologic neoplasm : Uterine Leiomyoma

    255. Most common hereditary hypercoagulable condition : Factor V Leiden

    256. Most common hereditary leukodystrophy : Metachromatic leukodystrophy

    257. Most common histologic type of bronchogenic carcinoma associated with cavitation : Squamous

    258. Most common histologic type of bronchogenic carcinoma associated with pancoast tumor : Squamous

    259. Most common histologic type of bronchogenic carcinoma associated with pleural effusion : Adenocarcinoma

    260. Most common histologic type of lung cancer associated with asbestosis exposure : BAC

    261. Most common histologic type of primary cutaneous lymphoma :T-cell lymphoma

    262. Most common ILD to be found in association with collagen vascular disease : NSIP

    263. Most common indication for percutaneous vertebroplasty : Osteoporosis.

    264. Most common infection to cause cerebellar hypoplasia & migration anomalies : CMV

    265. Most common infratentorial neoplasm in an adult : Metastases

    266. Most common inherited disease among Caucasian Americans : CF

    267. Most common internal enhancement pattern in DCIS with non mass like enhancement : Clumped enhancement

    268. Most common intracranial site of teratomas : Pineal region.

    269. Most common intracranial presentation of TB : Tuberculous meningitis.

    270. Most common intramedullary spinal neoplasm in adults : Ependymoma of Spinal Cord

    271. Most common intramedullary tumor in children : Astrocytoma

    272. Most common intramedullary tumor of adults : Ependymoma.

    273. Most common intraocular neoplasm in childhood : Retinoblastoma

    274. Most common intraorbital tumors found in adults : Cavernous hemangiomas.

    275. Most common intrathoracic fetal anomaly : Congenital diaphragmatic Hernia

    276. Most common intrathoracic foregut cyst : Bronchogenic Cyst

    277. Most common intrauterine CNS infection : CMV

    278. Most common intravascular venous tumor : Leiomyosarcoma of IVC

    279. Most common in-utero renal tumor : Mesoblastic nephroma.

    280. Most common invasive gynecologic malignancy : Endometrial malignancy

    281. Most common islet cell tumor in MEN 1 : Gastrinoma

    282. Most common islet cell tumor of the pancreas : Insulinoma.

    283. Most common joint involved in synovial osteochondromatosis : Knee

    284. Most common lesion to cause expansion of paranasal sinus : Mucocele

    285. Most common lethal bone dysplasia : Osteogenesis imperfecta type II ?

    286. Most common liver tumor after metastases : Hemangioma

    287. Most common lobe affected in bronchial atresia : Left upper lobe.

    288. Most common location for a cephalhematoma : Parietal

    289. Most common location for a gastric diverticulum : Posterior wall of the gastric fundus.

    290. Most common location for a pilocytic astrocytoma : Cerebellum

    291. Most common location for a solitary myeloma of the bone : Thoracolumbar spine

    292. Most common location for a synovial sarcoma : Knee

    293. Most common location for a Tarlov cyst : Posterior rootlets of S2 + S3

    294. Most common location for abdominal sarcoid involvement : Stomach

    295. Most common location for atelectatic asbestos pseudotumor : Posteromedial & -lateral basal region of lower lobes

    296. Most common location for chordomas : Sacral spine.

    297. Most common location for gallbladder perforation : Fundus

    298. Most common location for Sclerosing Osteomyelitis of Garré (sterile Osteomyelitis) : Mandible

    299. Most common location for typhlitis : Cecum.

    300. Most common location for well-differentiated liposarcoma : Thigh

    301. Most common location in biliary tree for cholangiocarcinoma : Upper third/perihilar region.

    302. Most common location in the spine for an osteochondroma : Cervical (C2) followed by thoracic T8

    303. Most common location of a meningioma in the spine : Thoracic spinal cord

    304. Most common location of a periurethral diverticulum in a female : Posterolateral.

    305. Most common location of an ectopic pregnancy : Ampullary region of the fallopian tube.

    306. Most common location of benign and malignant masses in breast : Upper outer quadrant

    307. Most common location of bronchogenic carcinoma : Right upper lobe

    308. Most common location of coarctation : Postductal beyond the origin of the left subclavian artery.

    309. Most common location of coronary calcifications : LAD.

    310. Most common location of DAI : Frontotemporal gray–white matter junction.

    311. Most common location of GIST : Stomach.

    312. Most common location of GU obstruction in a neonatal male : Ureteropelvic junction.

    313. Most common location of intracranial dissection : Vertebral arteries.

    314. Most common location of intraorbital abscess : Subperiosteal space on medial wall.

    315. Most common location of intraventricular meningioma : Atrium of the lateral ventricle.

    316. Most common location of oligodendroglioma : Frontal lobe.

    317. Most common location of pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma : Temporal lobes.

    318. Most common location of pulmonary sequestration : Posterior medial lower.

    319. Most common location of PVNS : Knee.

    320. Most common location of sarcoidosis in spinal cord : Cervical.

    321. Most common location of the biliary embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma : CBD

    322. Most common location of triquetral fracture is dorsal avulsion

    323. Most common location to find a lithopedion : Adnexae

    324. Most common location to see intravertebral vacuum phenomenon (Kümmell Disease) : Thoracolumbar junction

    325. Most common lung infection in HIV: Bacterial pneumonia

    326. Most common lung mass : Granuloma

    327. Most common lysosomal storage disorder : Gaucher’s disease

    328. Most common malformation associated with callosal agenesis : Dandy-Walker malformation.

    329. Most common malignancy of childhood : Leukemia.

    330. Most common malignancy of parotid gland in adults : Mucoepidermoid carcinoma.

    331. Most common malignant abdominal neoplasm in children 1–8 years old : Wilms Tumor.

    332. Most common malignant bone tumor in children : Ewings

    333. Most common malignant cause of bilateral global renal enlargement : Lymphoma.

    334. Most common malignant neoplasm of diaphragm : Fibrosarcoma.

    335. Most common malignant neoplasm of the spleen : Lymphoma.

    336. Most common malignant ovarian neoplasm : Serous adenocarcinoma.

    337. Most common malignant ovarian neoplasm : Serous cystadenocarcinoma.

    338. Most common malignant primary bone tumor in young adults + children : Osteosarcoma

    339. Most common malignant radiation-induced tumor of the musculoskeletal system : MFH

    340. Most common malignant sex cord–stromal tumor : Granulosa cell tumor

    341. Most common malignant testicular neoplasm : Nonseminomatous germ cell tumors

    342. Most common malignant tumor affecting ribs of children + adolescents : Ewing’s Sarcoma

    343. Most common malignant tumor of the abdomen in patients with NF1 Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor

    344. Most common malignant tumor of the duodenum : Adenocarcinoma.

    345. Most common malignant tumor of the heart : Angiosarcoma

    346. Most common malignant tumor of the small bowel : Carcinoid

    347. Most common mammographic finding in DCIS : Microcalcifications

    348. Most common mammographic finding in Infiltrating/Invasive Lobular Carcinoma : Architectural distortion.

    349. Most common manifestation of asbestosis exposure : Pleural plaques

    350. Most common manifestation of asbestos-related pleural disease : Pleural effusion

    351. Most common manifestation of blunt chest trauma : Pulmonary contusion

    352. Most common mass lesion of the cerebellopontine angle after acoustic schwannoma : Meningioma

    353. Most common mediastinal germ cell tumor : Seminoma.

    354. Most common mediastinal mass in a child between the ages of 6 & 12 years old : Lymphoma

    355. Most common mediastinal neurogenic tumor : Schwannoma

    356. Most common mesenchymal origin neoplasm of GI tract : GIST

    357. Most common metabolic liver disease in children : Hepatic cirrhosis in homozygous alpha-1 Antitrypsin

    Deficiency

    358. Most common metastases to the spleen : Breast carcinoma

    359. Most common metastasis to the heart : Melanoma

    360. Most common metastatic cause of linitis plastica : Breast carcinoma

    361. Most common metatarsal to have a stress fracture : Second metatarsal.

    362. Most common missed type of breast cancer on mammography : Infiltrating/Invasive Lobular Carcinoma.

    363. Most common mitral valve abnormality in the Western world : Nonrheumatic mitral valve disease.

    364. Most common monodermal teratoma : Struma ovarii.

    365. Most common motor neuron disease : ALS.

    366. Most common MR imaging finding in DCIS : Non-masslike enhancement.

    367. Most common mycotic pneumonia in an AIDS patient : Cryptococcus.

    368. Most common natural outcome of the VSD : Spontaneous complete closure.

    369. Most common neonatal cyanotic congenital heart malformation : TGV

    370. Most common neonatal lesion of adrenal gland : Nontraumatic Adrenal Hemorrhage.

    371. Most common neoplasm of conus medullaris : Myxopapillary Ependymoma of Spinal Cord.

    372. Most common neoplasm of internal auditory canal / cerebellopontine angle : Vestibular Schwannoma.

    373. Most common neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract in patients with NF1: Neurofibromas.

    374. Most common nerve to be involved in tarsal tunnel syndrome : Posterior tibial nerve.

    375. Most common non epidemic meningoencephalitis in immunocompetent individuals in US : Herpes Encephalitis.

    376. Most common non epithelial malignant bladder tumor : Leiomyosarcoma.

    377. Most common non epithelial tumor in the colon : Lipoma.

    378. Most common non epithelial tumor of the bladder : Leiomyoma.

    379. Most common non glial primary tumors of the central nervous system : Meningiomas.

    380. Most common non lymphoproliferative primary malignant tumor of the spine in adults : Chordoma.

    381. Most common non lymphoproliferative primary malignant tumor of the spine in children : PNET.

    382. Most common non traumatic cause of acute limp in a child : Toxic synovitis.

    383. Most common non-traumatic cause of facial nerve paralysis & hearing loss : CPA tumor.

    384. Most common odontogenic mass : Odontoma= odontogenic hamartomatous malformation.

    385. Most common of all alimentary tract duplications : Small Bowel Duplication Cyst.

    386. Most common of cerebral vascular malformation : DVA.

    387. Most common opportunistic infection in AIDS : Toxoplasmosis.

    388. Most common organism involved in pancreatic abscess : E. Coli.

    389. Most common organism of acute pyogenic meningitis in infants & children : N. meningitidis.

    390. Most common origin of cystic artery : Right hepatic artery.

    391. Most common osteochondrodysplasia : Hereditary Multiple Exostoses

    392. Most common ovarian neoplasm : Dermoid aka dermoid cyst = Mature cystic teratoma

    393. Most common ovarian tumor-related morbidity : Bowel obstruction

    394. Most common pancreatic abnormality in adult pt’s with CF : Complete fatty replacement

    395. Most common paraneoplastic disease associated with thymoma : Myasthenia gravis

    396. Most common parasitic infection involving CNS in developing countries : Cysticercosis

    397. Most common parotid disease in children : Mumps parotitis.

    398. Most common pattern of bronchial arteries : Two left & one right bronchial artery

    399. Most common pattern of enhancement at DE MR cardiac imaging : Patchy midwall enhancement with multiple

    foci

    400. Most common pattern of hepatic involvement of secondary lymphoma : Diffuse infiltrative

    401. Most common pattern of spread in Gallbladder Carcinoma : Direct spread.

    402. Most common pediatric glioma : JPA

    403. Most common pediatric tumor causing isosexual precocious puberty in a girl : Granulosa cell tumor

    404. Most common phakomatoses : NF1

    405. Most common pineal tumor : Pineal Germinoma

    406. Most common predisposing cause to develop pneumothorax during percutaneous lung biopsy : COPD

    407. Most common predisposing disorder of secondary spontaneous pneumothorax : COPD

    408. Most common pregnancy-related mortality in the first trimester Ectopic pregnancy

    409. Most common presentation for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis : Dyspnea

    410. Most common presentation in stuck twin syndrome : Monochorionic diamniotic

    411. Most common presentation of bronchoalveolar cell carcinoma (BAC) : Solitary pulmonary nodule.

    412. Most common presentation of GIST on cross sectional imaging : Cystic areas of necrosis.

    413. Most common presentation of mesoblastic nephroma : Palpable mass at birth.

    414. Most common presentation of neurocysticercosis : Seizures.

    415. Most common presenting symptom of Osler Weber Rendu : Hemoptysis.

    416. Most common primary benign mesenteric tumor : Desmoid.

    417. Most common primary brain tumor : GBM.

    418. Most common primary cardiac tumors in adults : Myxomas.

    419. Most common primary cerebellar mass in an adult : Hemangioblastoma

    420. Most common primary demyelinating disease : MS

    421. Most common primary female urethral malignancy : Squamous cell carcinoma

    422. Most common primary hepatic neoplasm in infants & children <5 years old : Hepatoblastoma

    423. Most common primary intraocular neoplasm in adult Caucasian : Uveal Melanoma

    424. Most common primary lung tumor under age 16 : Bronchial Adenoma

    425. Most common primary malignant rib tumor : Chondrosarcoma

    426. Most common primary malignant sacral tumor : Sacrococcygeal Chordoma

    427. Most common primary malignant soft-tissue tumor of late adult life : Soft-tissue MFH

    428. Most common primary neoplasm of the spleen : Cavernous hemangioma

    429. Most common primary neoplasms of the anterior superior mediastinum Thymomas.

    430. Most common primary posterior mediastinal neoplasms :Neurogenic tumors

    431. Most common primary tumor of the diaphragm : Lipoma

    432. Most common radiation-induced CNS tumor : Meningioma

    433. Most common reason for cardiac transplantation : Dilated cardiomyopathy

    434. Most common recognized CNS manifestation of VHL disease : Hemangioblastoma of CNS

    435. Most common relevant finding on cavogram for IVC filter placement : Circumaortic left renal vein.

    436. Most common renal fusion anomaly : Horseshoe kidney

    437. Most common renal mass in a 3 months old infant : Mesoblastic nephroma

    438. Most common respiratory cause of cold agglutinin production : Mycoplasma pneumonia

    439. Most common retinal infection in AIDS : Toxoplasmosis

    440. Most common right cardiophrenic angle mass : Epicardial fat-pad/lipoma

    441. Most common segment involved in tracheobronchial injury : Right lower lobe bronchus.

    442. Most common sex cord-stromal cell tumor : Ovarian Fibroma

    443. Most common sign of failing dialysis graft : Increased venous pressures

    444. Most common sign of tuberous sclerosis : Myoclonic seizures

    445. Most common single cause of breast lumps in females between 35 to 55 years of age : Breast cyst

    446. Most common site for an intracardiac papillary fibroelastoma : Aortic valve.

    447. Most common site for aneurysm in the chest : Descending thoracic aorta.

    448. Most common site for cardiac myxoma : Left atrium

    449. Most common site for intracardiac thrombus formation : Atrial appendage.

    450. Most common site for optic melanoma metastases : Liver.

    451. Most common site for penetrating aortic ulcers : Descending thoracic aorta

    452. Most common site of abdominal involvement in Hodgkin’s disease : Spleen

    453. Most common site of aortic dissection : Prox. Desc. Thoracic aorta near ductus lig. attachment

    454. Most common site of biliary tract injury caused by blunt abdominal trauma : Gallbladder

    455. Most common site of monostotic fibrous dysplasia : Ribs

    456. Most common site of rupture of sinus of Valsalva aneurysm : RV followed by RA.

    457. Most common solid extracranial tumor of childhood : Neuroblastoma

    458. Most common spermatic cord tumor : Lipoma

    459. Most common spinal cord segment of lymphoma of spinal cord : Cervical

    460. Most common spinal cord tumor : Ependymoma

    461. Most common spinal location for cord astrocytoma : Thoracic

    462. Most common spinal location for cord ependymoma : Cervical

    463. Most common subcortical degenerative disease : Parkinson’s

    464. Most common subglottic soft-tissue upper resp. tract obstructing mass in neonates : Subglottic Hemangioma

    465. Most common submucosal tumor in colon : Lipoma

    466. Most common subtype of NHL involving the esophagus : Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    467. Most common subtype of renal cell carcinoma : Clear cell adenocarcinomas

    468. Most common suprasellar mass : Craniopharyngioma

    469. Most common syndromic islet cell tumor : Insulinoma

    470. Most common systemic allergic hypersensitivity-related acute small-vessel vasculitis in children : HSP

    471. Most common systemic fungal infection in immunocompromised patients : Candidiasis of Liver

    472. Most common tarsal bone to get fractured : Calcaneus

    473. Most common tarsal coalition : Talocalcaneal

    474. Most common testicular tumor in a young boy : Yolk sac tumor

    475. Most common tibial plateau fractures : Lateral tibial plateau (Schatzker classification type I–III)

    476. Most common trigonal intraventricular mass in adulthood : Meningioma

    477. Most common tumor of adenohypophysis : Pituitary Adenoma

    478. Most common tumor of genitourinary tract : Metachronous TCC

    479. Most common tumor of the appendix : Carcinoid

    480. Most common tumor of the esophagus : Leiomyomas

    481. Most common tumor of the minor salivary glands : Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma

    482. Most common type of abdominal wall hernia : Inguinal hernia

    483. Most common type of ASD : Ostium secundum

    484. Most common type of brain herniation : anterior / uncal transtentorial

    485. Most common type of brain herniation : Subfalcine herniation

    486. Most common type of C2 fractures : Type 2

    487. Most common type of cancer to arise from a thyroglossal duct cyst : Papillary carcinoma

    488. Most common type of cardiomyopathy : Dilated cardiomyopathy

    489. Most common type of choledochal cyst : fusiform dilatation of the extrahepatic duct Type 1c

    490. Most common type of congenital internal hernia : Left paraduodenal hernia

    491. Most common type of encephalocele in SE Asia: Sincipital Encephalocele

    492. Most common type of encephalocele in US : Occipital Encephalocele

    493. Most common type of endoleak in the abdominal aorta : Type II endoleak

    494. Most common type of endoleak in the thoracic aorta : Type I endoleak

    495. Most common type of fracture of the proximal 5th metatarsal bone : Peroneus brevis avulsion fracture.

    496. Most common type of gallbladder inflammation : Chronic cholecystitis

    497. Most common type of internal hernia : Postoperative, transmesenteric hernias.

    498. Most common type of intrapulmonary involvement of Hodgkins disease : Bronchovascular form.

    499. Most common type of liver abscess : Pyogenic Liver Abscess

    500. Most common type of lymphoma involving the head and neck region : Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

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